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Among all metabolic cancer susceptibility genes, the association of GSTM1 deficiency with cancer risk is the most consistent and unidirectional. Various experimental and epidemiological observations support the role of this gene in tobacco-related cancers. For example, it has been observed that the excretion of urinary mutagens and the number of lung tissue DNA adducts in GSTM1-deficient smokers is significantly greater than those carrying the wild-type allele 55 — Various epidemiological studies also support the premise that deficiency of this enzyme predisposes for lung and bladder cancers Furthermore, low activity alleles of GSTPi have been often found in association with different types of human cancers 59 , In addition to anomalies of biotransformation enzyme genes, inactivation of tumour suppressor genes such as p53 , and activation of the proto-oncogene K-ras are also involved in tobacco-related cancers.

Various mutated forms of tumour suppressor gene p53 have been commonly detected in lung tumours and it has been found that these mutations are predominantly located in exons 5 to 8. The nature of point mutations in this gene has been extensively investigated and studies show that the most common mutant allele of the p53 gene possesses a G: C transversion 61 , which is associated with tobacco use 62 , The above studies show that several genetically controlled polymorphic enzymes and enzyme systems are linked to tobacco carcinogen activation and deactivation.

Some of these genes have been identified and characterized, but others remain undiscovered. Not only the independent effects of single gene polymorphisms, but an interplay of multiple gene interactions appear to be involved.

The complexity of epidemiological studies, which have many uncontrollable variables, makes it difficult to study such interactions and their control in human studies. Additionally, many of the enzymes involved in tobacco carcinogen metabolism are also induced by other environmental factors such as alcohol use, dietary constituents, pesticide and xenobiotic exposure, hormonal status, etc, further complicating the interpretation of data.

The interaction of many of these genes with each other and the effect of environmental factors are just beginning to be examined.

The adverse effects of cigarette smoke on human health are widely recognized. It is the main etiological agent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, and is a known human carcinogen. While the risks to human health from active smoking are accepted, evidence supporting the risk of involuntary exposure to environmental tobacco smoke ETS has accumulated in recent years.

It is the main source of toxicant exposure by inhalation in nonsmokers. Despite recent regulations, smoking in public enterprises is not uncommon.

However, despite an occasional report on the effect of secondhand smoke in nonsmokers, little attention was given to this aspect of smoking until about ETS is now regarded as a risk factor for development of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and altered lung functions in passive smokers In general, children exposed to ETS show deterioration of lung function, more days of restricted activity, more pulmonary infections, more days in bed, more absences from school and more hospitalization than children living in nonsmoking homes Passive smoking is also implicated in increasing atherosclerosis in individuals 15 to 65 years of age.

Children exposed to ETS are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Quantitative risk estimates were obtained by measuring the intimal-medial thickness of the carotid artery in a large longitudinal atherosclerosis risk study of 10, individuals.

A recent meta-analysis 67 of 18 epidemiological studies 10 cohort and eight case-control further showed an increased RR of CAD in ETS-exposed individuals. These investigators also identified a significant dose-response relationship between the intensity of smoke exposure and risk of CAD in passive smokers. Cardiovascular health risks of smoke-exposed women are of particular concern.

Although the exposure to ETS is a current topic of debate in tobacco-related cancers and other lung diseases, the limited research at the basic experimental level provides a strong argument for launching experimental studies to support human data and explore disease mechanisms.

Follow-up of news stories, and local and state ordinances, leads to the conclusion that more communities and states are restricting exposure to secondhand smoke. The results are summarized below. A total of hits were obtained and a careful review of the abstracts provided the following distribution:. A similar search of the NIH database from to revealed grants in all award categories.

The grant distribution by category was as follows:. All the remaining grants generally supported behavioural and epidemiological studies in humans or other systems. Thus, it is clear that the need for basic experimental research in the field of smoking-associated diseases and the mechanisms through which tobacco smoke causes various diseases remain as important as they ever were.

The escalation of health care costs makes it even more necessary to find ways to protect the health of smokers and smoke-exposed individuals with any dietary or therapeutic interventions that hold promise. The most benefit is likely to result from detailed epidemiological studies complemented by specific molecular genotyping of various populations. Ideally, studies of this type will re-evaluate the prevalence of smoking and tobacco use and determine the exact nature of tobacco-related disease incidence, the role of contributory factors such as dietary habits, exposure to other substances and the genetic composition of subpopulations most at risk.

Various biochemical and molecular assays will need to be applied to screen nonsmoker and smoker populations for a variety of health risks. Analysis of the results from such studies will help identify the main interacting factors for various health risks and define relationships among various epidemiological parameters.

It would appear necessary to assemble teams of multidisciplinary investigators to perform these coordinated human studies in the field and in the laboratory. By nature, such studies are expensive and will involve commitment of resources, time and substantial amounts of funds to obtain meaningful results.

Given the limited resources and competing priorities for research funding, it is not easy to undertake such human studies. Hence, the experimental studies in animal models using inhalation exposure to whole smoke, and not individual constituents of smoke, is probably the next best approach for smoking and health programs.

The human epidemiological studies described in the present review have identified a number of genes that appear to have a distinct role in various tobacco-related diseases, and cancers in particular. Inability to control all the different variables in human studies has made it difficult to clearly define the contribution of various suspect genes in tobacco carcinogenesis. With the recent commercial availability of a variety of transgenic and knock-out animals for research, it would be most desirable, as a first step, to use these animals to establish experimental models of various tobacco-related diseases which can then be used for determining the contribution of different genes to disease processes and for elucidation of the mechanism s of disease development.

Furthermore, these animal models can be used to identify various agents possessing protective and therapeutic potential. Research efforts in the area of smoking and health would benefit by focusing on studies of the in vivo effects of inhaled whole cigarette smoke in animal models of known specific genetic composition.

Selection of the genetic composition would also require a thorough consideration of the information available from human molecular epidemiological studies. As indicated earlier, there are a number of genes that clearly influence the development of smoke-related diseases. In this context, many relevant transgenic and knock-out animals that can be effectively used for the study of tobacco-related diseases are now becoming available. Tobacco abuse is a major public health problem and includes secondhand smoke exposure.

Continued efforts to control and eliminate this abuse are a medical necessity. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Int J Angiol v. Telephone , fax , e-mail ude. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract A large volume of data has accumulated on the issues of tobacco and health worldwide.

Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Smoking, Tobacco. TOBACCO-RELATED CANCERS Tobacco carcinogenesis has remained a focus of research during the past 10 years, and various epidemiological and experimental studies have not only confirmed the major role of tobacco smoke exposure in lung and bladder cancers, but have also reported on its association with cancers of various other sites, such as the oral cavity, esophagus, colon, pancreas, breast, larynx and kidney.

A total of hits were obtained and a careful review of the abstracts provided the following distribution: A Global Status Report. World Health Organization; The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Centers for Disease Control. Murray J, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause — Global burden of disease study. Cancers weakly related to smoking.

Risk from tobacco and potentials for health gain. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Cancer, cigarette smoking and premature death in Europe: Hoffman D, Hoffman I. J Toxicol Environ Health. Cigarette smoke radicals and the role of free radicals in chemical carcinogenicity. Vascular damage from smoking: Disease mechanisms at the arterial wall. Smoking as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. Acetylcholine-induced coronary vasoconstriction in young, heavy smokers with normal coronary arteriographic findings.

Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy young adults. N Engl J Med. Smoking is associated with dose-related increase of intima-media thickness and endothelial dysfunction. Arterial endothelial dysfunction related to passive smoking is potentially reversible in healthy young adults.

Smoking impairs the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in saphenous vein. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Diminished vascular response to inhibition of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and enhanced vasoconstriction to exogenously administered endothelin-1 in clinically healthy smokers. A smoking-dependent risk of coronary artery disease associated with a polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene.

Smoking-dependent and haplotype-specific effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms on angiographically assessed coronary artery disease in Caucasian- and African-Brazilians. Adverse effects of cigarette smoke on NO bioavailability: Role of arginine metabolism and oxidative stress. Adhesion-promoting effects of cigarette smoke on leukocytes and endothelial cells. Ann NY Acad Sci. Cigarette smoke condensate-induced adhesion molecule expression and transendothelial migration of monocytes.

Increased adhesiveness of isolated monocytes to endothelium is prevented by vitamin C intake in smokers. Cigarette smoking is associated with increased human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: Reversibility with oral L-arginine but not vitamin C.

J Am Coll Cardiol. Oxidative stress induced by environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace is mitigated by antioxidant supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation F2-isoprostanes in smokers. N Eng J Med. Effect of vitamin E on endothelial vasodilator function in patients with hypercholesterolemia, chronic smoking or both.

Steinberg F, Chait A. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation and lipid peroxidation in smokers. Am J Clin Nutr. A report of the surgeon general. Lung cancer in women. Lash T, Aschengrau A. Active and passive cigarette smoking and the occurence of breast cancer. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer in Sweden.

Lung cancer and type of cigarette smoked. The biological significance of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines: Smoking and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Weston A, Godbold JH. Polymorphisms of H-ras-1 and p53 in breast cancer and lung cancer: Polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases, microsomal epoxide hydrolase and sulfotransferases: Influence on cancer susceptibility. Recent Results Cancer Res. N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism, cigarette smoking, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk.

Cytochrome P and acetyltransferase expression as biomarkers of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels and human cancer susceptibility. Prog Clin Biol Res. Cytochrome P 2E1 Dral polymorphisms in lung cancer in minority populations.

Effect of active and passive cigarette smoking on CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin disposition in Chinese subjects. Polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and gluthathione S-transferase genes associated with susceptibility to lung cancer in relation to cigarette dose in a Japanese population. Effects on risk of toxocology and cancer. A study on host factors in relation to age at onset, gender and histological cancer types. A case control study of cytochrome P 1A1, glutathione S transferase M1, cigarette smoking and lung cancer susceptibility.

Genetically based N-acetyltransferase metabolic polymorphism and low level environmental exposure to carcinogens. Combined analysis of inherited polymorphisms in arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2, glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and cytochrome P enzymes as modulators of bladder cancer risk. Modulation of urinary mutagenicity by genetically determined carcinogen metabolism in smokers. Human lung carcinogen-DNA adduct levels mediated by genetic polymorphisms in vivo.

J Natl Canc Inst. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic conjugation and disease predisposition. How ludicrous can a person get? A person would sue a tobacco company because they had developed cancer. For one reason , how could a person just pick on one company in particular. Because of the fact th The Tobacco Wars The U.

Some examples of the way the government regulates are setting an age limit and taxing tobacco products. In the economic world, the tobacco wars are a serious issue. The sale of tobacco as we know is very inelastic. The government puts heavy taxes on tobacco products to cut down on One of the biggest problems in this world today is under age smoking.

Many tobacco companies influence smoking among minors. Minors are potential long-term smokers, therefore most tobacco companies target minors for profit. Tobacco companies target minors only for profit. They know that almost everyone that smokes started before the age of Tobacco companies target minors in many ways.

In , Drew Carey held a sit-in because of the smoking ban in the California bars. Drew felt "It should be up to each bar owner and patron to decide if they want to smoke Hazardous effect of smokingThesis statement: Furthermore, the hazardous ingredients in cigarette tobacco has many dangerous effects on your health and the health of others.

The hazardous ingredients in cigarette tobaccoA. The diseases related to smoking cigarettesA. How cigarette smoking effects your health1. Though the look is appealing, every time you go out into the sun with unprotected skin you are putting yourself at risk of skin cancer.

Most people don't think about it, but with today's pollution and deteriorating ozone, skin cancer The media has been telling us what to buy since the beginning of the printing press. There is only one problem now; industry is trying to target certain groups that are more susceptible to buy their products. The most publicized of these big corporations are the people of the Giving adults something to stress about since the s Audience: Youthful smoking is widely accepted in many cultures, with the exception of that of the United States.

In the more recent years of the United States history, much money has been wasted on r This essay is about cancer; it s causes and methods of treatment. I have collected a wide variety of information from a wide variety of sources.

Names of the d Addiction to PoisonOne of the most serious and expensive problems in the U. People who are addicted to smoking tobacco are teenagers, young adults, and older adults. Social problems and media are major reasons for this increase. Smokers are every where with the In recent years Cancer is disease that has seemed to captivate and frighten Americans. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U. With each day scientific findings aid a better understanding of the causes of the disease.

These findings have opened doors to help treat cancer patients more effectively. The hazardous ingredients in cigarette tobacco A. The diseases related to smoking cigarettes A. How cigarette smoking effects your health 1.

CancerIn the American society, cancer is the disease most feared by the majority of people within the U. Cancer has been known and described throughout history. In the early s nearly 6 million cancer cases and more than 4 million deaths have been reported worldwide, every year. The most fatal cancer in the world is lung cancer, which has grown drastically since the spread of cigaret Different Cancers Leukemia Symptoms Feeling weak or dizzy after an activity Pains in joints and bones Constantly sick, one cold after another Swelling in the neck and armpits, tender to the touch Feeling warm with a pale complexion A persons immune system has been damaged High Risk Conditions People with exposure to large amount of radiation Treatment There is no cure for all leukemia Smokingcigarettes was a way to relieve stress, relax, and enjoy life.

Smoking was consideredharmless until about 50 years ago. The American Tobacco Company disagrees with this.

Research since then has proven much about this American pastime. The American Tobacco Company r The Dangers of Smoking When Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas, he found the natives using tobacco in much the same manner as it is used today.

The American Indians believed it to possess 0medicinal properties, which was the main reason for its introduction into Europe. Tobacco was important in Indian ceremonies, such as the smoking of the pipe of peace. There are many things today which cause us harm.

One can spend virtually an entire day listing the hazards faced by modern society. However, none of these hazards are as deadly as a habit millions of American's bring on themselves twenty to thirty times a day.

Smoking is the cause of a multitude of medical problems that plague not only the individual smoker, but everyone else as well. Comparative forms of tobacco use In native Indians were smoking rolled up tobacco leaves.

In the 16th century tobacco smoking spread to Europe. By the late tobacco tolled in paper called cigarettes were a major industry with billions being sold each year.

Today there are many products that contain tobacco. Cigarettes and snuff are the most popular on the market. Cigarette smoking has been proven to be hazardous to your health. It wasn t until that the actual truth came out about cigarette use.

From the years Kent brand cigarettes was allowed to use a filter containing asbestos. Cigarette ads were allowed on televi Secondhand Smoke, Is It a Hazard? By the time people actually decided to take care of their health and finally saw how life-threatening smoking Lung cancer is an uncontrolled, extremely deadly division of cells in the lung World Book, Lung Cancer. The two major types of lung cancer include small and non-small cell. Many different risk factors contribute to lung cancer.

There are numerous symptoms that are difficult to detect in the early stages of lung cancer. Doctors use special machines to detect the severity of each stage. After the Environmental Protection Agency and the Surgeon General stated that cigarettes cause lung cancer there was a tremendous movement to make cigarettes illegal. Now the debate is on environmental to SmokingSmoking is the inhalation and exhalation of the fumes of burning tobacco. The dried leaves of the plant are smoked in a pipe or in cigar form, but mostly in cigarettes.

About 50 million Americans currently smoke a total of billion cigarettes each year. At first smoking was considerd harmless, but labortaory and clinical res Tobacco Should Be Illegal! Why isn t tobacco considered a drug?

When the facts are reviewed, tobacco produces all of the effects of a drug although isn t recognized as one. What makes tobacco different from any other drug? Among the many effects of tobacco on the body, includes the ability to be addictive and cause numerous cases of cancer. Unfortunately, tobacco is not recognized Lung Cancer Cancer is a disease marked by uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.

The abnormal cells may no longer do the work of normal cells and in turn crowd out and destroy the healthy tissue. Most of the victims of cancer die from lung cancer.

Many of these cases could have been avoided because it most often occurs in people over the age of 50 with a history of smoking. There are different t Peer Pressures of High School Glaring down at the reddish glow coming from the tip of the cigarette, I found out that I was in a peer pressure situation. Peer Pressure can be a huge problem for some young adults. Smoking is just one of the peer pressures someone can go through. Alcohol and staying out l Smoking is the most important single preventable cause of illness and premature death in North America.

In the United States alone, more than , deaths are attributed to tobacco use each year. This exceeds the total number of American lives lost in all of the wars fought since the country was founded. In the Royal College of Physicians of London had released a significant study, wh While eating dinner at El Ranchito an acrid plume of smoke wafts over my table causing my eyes to water and my nose to become congested.

Once again another inconsiderate smoker has ruined a nice meal. Second-hand smoke is both a danger and a discomfort to non-smokers, and should be banned in I do not smoke for many reasons.

One is because I am active in my community as a good student, as a community leader, and as a dedicated worker. I have to be a good role model to those in the community and smoking is not one of those aspects to be looked up to.

Another reason I do not smoke is because I have been personally affected by the negative impact of smoking. Smoking on School Grounds By Thomas John Marigliano Our high school administrative board has been trying to decide weather smoking on school grounds should be restricted. New York State regulates smoking in all public places except for schools. We have been educating students for many years about the dangers of smoking, so why do we still allow students to smoke on school grounds.

Should You Use Tobacco? There are about 1. Many historians believe smoking started with the Native Americans. There are many uses of the tobacco leaf. Also there are many things to consider if you thinking about using any type of tobacco. First, one must realize there is illness associated with the use of tobacco. The hardest thing I've ever had to deal with was seeing my father, of almost seventeen years, cry. That was the day my grandfather died, the day i understood everything. No one is ever ready or prepared to see a loved one go, so when they do there is no way to cope.

You see, cigarettes murdered my grandfather. Of course it was his choice to start the addictive habit, but his life ende Holden Caulfield is a teenager struggling to reach maturity. He is growing up in New York and goes through a lot of difficulties a teenager goes through in his teenage life like drinking, smoking, depression and family problems. The problems he has is relevant to New Zealand teenagers of today because a lot of teenagers in New Zealand Smoking and Relaxation 3 Smoking and Relaxation Are smokers more relaxed than non-smokers?

I smoke and I want to find out if the effects of smoking makes one more relaxed than somebody who doesn't. College can be a very stressful time for a person and is an excellent place to test this question. Jenks conducted both measures of life and health satisfaction and measures of self November 15, English Comp.

I Disgusting Smoke Stains and Odors Has anyone ever walked by you with the smell of stagnant smoke on his or her clothes, or have you ever met someone that has yellow stains on their teeth from nicotine? Smoking cigarettes not only makes people smell bad, but the things around them as well. The appearance of a smoker and their belongings is disgusting and Smoking is an addiction. When a person smokes a tobacco product, they inhale the smoke, which contains nicotine as well as over other chemicals.

A cigarette contains cover paper, tobacco, nicotine, filter, and tar. The tobacco is where the tar comes from in a cigarette.

The other substances that are in the cigarette produce this tar. The tar causes problems with the throat, mouth, and Every time one takes a puff of a cigarette they re playing a dangerous game with life. I always wondered, Why are cigarettes so deadly, what is in cigarettes, if people know they re deadly then why do they still smoke them, and finally why does the government allow people to buy these when they can kill you?

November 15, Protecting Non-Smokers on Campus People have many different views about smoking in public places. Smokers feel it is their right to smoke where and when they want. But non-smokers like me, feel that people who smoke are actually endangering my life and the lives of non-smokers. Smoking causes heart disease, lung cancer and other respiratory diseases.

If you are a smoker you should pay close attention, but even if you are not a smoker perhaps this will prevent you from smoking or guide you in helping someone else quit smoking Preview: Tobacco is used all over the world for centuries.

It can be ingested many different ways: Today, cigarette smokers consume the most tobacco, Cigarettes account for nearly 17 percent of all deaths in the United States annually Balch, Cigarette smoking continues to be a major health problem in the United States.

Recent studies indicate that smoking has c Effects of Smoking On the Body Smoking cigarettes has been proven too be extremely dangerous to your health, which causes various forms of cancer and other life threatening diseases. There are over 4, chemicals in cigarette smoke and of those are known poisons. Smoking cigarettes for as few as a couple of years can have permanent effects on the body. Smoking can effect the heart and lung Listed below are some ideas that will help eliminate the The fact that there was not a designated area for smokers has put the smoker and the non-smoker in an uncomfortable situation.

Smoking should be banned in public place Bill Braskkey Born to Smoke: Prenatal Effects on Maternal Smoking on Daughters Smoking I suppose the real reason why I decided on this topic was because I find the capabilities of science amazing. The fact that it was proven that daughters are more likely to smoke if their mother did while they were in the womb is almost hard to swallow.

Smoking has been a controversial issue for quite som People come up with many intricate and clever excuses to assure themselves, as well as others, that they are not smokers. Listed below are some ideas that will help eliminate the problem of Smoking in the United States has recently seen a rapid increase in the percentage of teenagers who are picking up the habit. There are multiple factors that have contributed to the surge of teenage smokers, and several suggestions have been made to suppress it.

Smoking is harmful to a smoker s health as well as the people around the smoker. The first and second hand smoke can cause lung disease, such as emphysema and lung cancer. It can also cause cancer of the mouth and throat. A smoker s hands, breath, clothes, car, and house smell like cigarette smoke.

They also have yellow teeth. That s why quitting is so important. Quitting is not easy, bu Cigarette Smoking For a long time now many people have different views about smoking in public places. On the other hand non-smokers feel smokers violate their rights and endanger there life. Smoking causes heart disease, lung cancer and other serious illnesses.

Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer Steps to a Better Life The decision to quit smoking is one decision a person will never regret! Smoking causes around , deaths each year, just in the United States. Quitting smoking cuts the risk of lung cancer, many other cancers, heart disease, stroke, other lung diseases, and other respiratory illnesses.

Quitting smoking, while pregnant, also increases the chances of survival The primary goal of my behavior change project is not to quit smoking, but to cut back on the amount of cigarettes that I smoke per day. Since I enjoy smoking after I eat, I plan to allow myself a cigarette after each meal, after that I am allowing myself three other cigarettes per day.

This will total six cigarettes per day, which may seem like a lot to some people, but this is a dramatic cut

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This paper seeks to investigate both the benefits and side effects of smoking in public and finally argue a case for or against the ban on smoking in public places. Proponents of the ban of smoking in public places argue that because not everyone is a smoker, the smell of cigarette smoke is offensive to non-smokers.

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Mar 28,  · Research Paper on Smoking Effects of Smoking Research Paper. The Psychological Effects of Smoking. Introduction. Smoking is one of the most widespread bad habits all over the world. In its turn, tobacco industry is one of the most profitable businesses nowadays. If you need a custom research paper, research proposal, .

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Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Cigarette Smoking Research Paper. Almost 35 years ago, the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Health Service reviewed over research papers on the topic of smoking and health, and publicly recognized the role of smoking in various diseases, including lung cancer.

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10 Best Prompts For Writing A Research Paper On Smoking. Tobacco; it is the demon that just will not die. Despite all the bad publicity for years, cigarette smoking is still going as strong as it ever was. Research Paper on Smoking Smoking Recently there has been an abundance of media coverage regarding a public’s “war of smoking.” Recently, Washington state has begun taking vital steps to prohibit smoking in public areas in .