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❶We cannot repeat too often that these times and ways have no relation to our own. All the works given in this volume belong to the last part, but we must glance at the others.

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When patients with chronic or acute illness in the setting of a severe chronic illness with a declining functionality so that death is expected within days to weeks, no CP will be initiated. The keys to the policy are severely chronic illness as represented by the patient's declining functionality; and that death is imminent.

It is a policy that advocates the right of a patient to forego life sustaining technology and intervention in what is constituted as legal death when the patient's heart stops and, without CP which could ostensibly revive the patient to life, is final death for the patient. The policy resolves decisions of the healthcare provider and the healthcare staff to act in response to the patient's cessation of life.

Today, unless a DN order is signed by the patient or the patient's family rights designee, then the hospital staff responds to the cessation of patient life…… [Read More]. Gibbon When Names of Historians. As Stephen Goode states , p. Such equilibrium was based in most part on the emperor's character. A bad emperor would mean mad times. That is, when imperial power is misused as it often was, the result was sapping the virtue of the state and initiating the decline of the living and strong political life that had maintained ome during the epublic and created its greatness.

Gibbon was the major critic of the oman Empire, and as detailer of its decline, he explains the loss of the public support and withdrawal of citizens from personal involvement in the life of the empire: Religious Liberty as Stated in the First. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law.

Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland which was officially declared an Anglican state in both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible.

By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U. Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and Milton's Paradise Lost are two examples of great works that seemingly have little in common. The differences in subject, approach, language and style contrast greatly but these works also share many common themes. Although Twelfth Night is a romantic comedic work and Paradise Lost is an epic poem that deals with a much heavier subject matter, both present the reader with stories of the consequences when there is a disruption in world order and balance while incorporating elements of disguise and character consequences.

Shakespeare's work is consistent with the witty, bright comedies popular during its time. According to Warren and Wells, these comedies typically included a mixture of dialogue, singing, stage fights, and suspense and the nature of the lighthearted language used was commonplace during the early 's Additionally, critic en Johnson said…… [Read More].

Other immigrant artists would soon join them in their endeavor to defy art and politics and most especially, the war madness.

Even if they were performing in Zurich, a hub of peace, WWI was providing more than a background for their artistic expressions.

WWI and everything related to it was the evil source of inspiration the artists attempted to sublimate thorough their art. The shows at the cabaret involved a whole array of artists from different corners of Europe.

The artists were free to experiment and most especially, to create everything that could go against the conventional, the traditional, dare, amaze, arouse, make people let loose, awake every sort of emotion possible, take art away…… [Read More]. Political Legitimacy and the Nature of Authority Throughout History From the origins of civilization to the middle of the seventeenth century, the nature of authority does change -- but it typically changes according to the demands of the individual society.

In ancient times, authority is based on a number of factors, such as military might in ome, Greece, Persia ; but religious beliefs also play a part the Greeks were very devoted to the gods and goddesses, for instance ; and so too does the political process in ome, they refused to have kings for a time and in Athens, political authority lay in the democratic process Haaren, Poland, In the medieval age, authority is based on the combination of reason and faith and the assent of kings to the oman Pontiff to allow the Church to have a say in the governance of Christendom, after Constantine allowed Christianity to come…… [Read More].

Ballets Russes and the Rite of Spring. The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky, choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky, laid the foundations of postmodernism in art, music and dance by promoting the ideas rooted in Kant and Nietzsche -- namely that truth exists not as an objective reality but rather as a construct of the mind -- a subjective, internalization of externalities Knight Postmodernism in the 20th century was essentially a reaction to the modernism of the 19th century and modernism's elevated belief in Reason, based on Enlightenment ideology which came about as a result of the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation in Europe.

The postmodernist reaction to the inheritors of the Enlightenment was to elevate irrationality and absurdity -- the idea that human beings, far from using Reason, very…… [Read More]. Emanuel Kant's the Work of. And the freedom in question is the most harmless of all-namely, to make public use of one's reason in all matters" Clarke , This added to classical liberalism's support of the freedom of speech and of the press.

This all played a part in Kant's desire to apply reason to practical life. In The Conflict of the Faculties, he wrote in defense of the openness of the university as "an institution that exists to serve governments…and [bring about] enlightening ends" Clarke , Thus once knowledge was separated from values, it could be harnessed to serve the human project.

One area where Kant had an impact beyond philosophy has been in international relations theory. People have order in their native land but see the rest of…… [Read More]. Produced for a Variety of. Byrd's work also predated the Lewis and Clarke journals in his information on the natural history of the area. In fact, he wrote about the Native American tribes and the flora and fauna, much still unknown at the time. This, too, was part of the Enlightenment though, a rather Lockean concept of using one's knowledge to both understand and interpret the universe.

By attempting definition, Byrd was following the path of the philosopher who sought to better understand himself by describing his world -- and by describing his world, having the ability to better understand the complex relationships therein.

Thus, the settlement of a mere boundary dispute had significance far beyond colonial law. We may be sure that Byrd had studied Locke, for there is much in the journals that reads as if Locke edited the passages. Locke, for instance, thought childhood was a type of innocence…… [Read More]. United States a Democracy the. The Executive Branch President and Cabinet executes spending and Congressional instructions, makes appointments to certain governmental posts, and is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.

The Judicial Branch Supreme Court exercises judicial review over the constitutionality and interpretation of laws; determines how Congress meant the law to apply, and has a panel that serves for life Constitutional Topic: There are a number of criticisms focused on the actual level of democracy or even democratic representation in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. First, many governmental officials Supreme Court justices, etc. Second, in order to be elected to a state or national office now requires a huge amount of funding; putting elected office outside the purview of most people.

Thus, it is not necessarily the "best" people…… [Read More]. Kinesthetic Intelligence -- and Kinesthetic. Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job. I will explore this in greater detail below. Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways.

This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he a visual learner might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her. It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…… [Read More].

Enlightened Jews When One Thinks. This dual raised status of rabbis made their role the most enviable in the community. The French Revolution is generally seen as an overthrow of the monarchy, and of course this is in part what happened. The revolution unseated the Catholic Church from its position of power perhaps even more surely than had the Reformation, and it helped to free the country from Protestant as well as Catholic influence.

Catherine the Great Enlightened Flowerpot. They did not expect her to evolve into a ruler of any significance. Catherine moved quickly to consolidate her power after taking the throne. She studied policy and reached out to consultants and political actors who would both aid her and prove trustworthy.

She ruled with a lighter touch, perhaps, than her husband, but she was certainly no push-over. Alexander writes that "Her style of governance was cautiously consultative, pragmatic, and 'hands-on,' with a Germanic sense of duty and strong aversion to wasting time. Perhaps this notion of Catherine the Great as a despot was introduced due to her later years when she seemed to indicate an unwillingness to allow her son to ascend the throne, or…… [Read More].

Adonais and Don Juan Explored. The dreadful aspect of life and even his own early demise surface in the emotions revealed in this poem.

It is deeply personal and intense. On the other hand, "Don Juan" is less personal. However, this is more than a character sketch. Each poem successfully utilizes the literary techniques of voice, mood, and tone to explore meaning. Shelley is remarkably successful in capturing moments of grief. The mood and tone of the poem are nothing to question.

The stanzas examine focus primarily on sorrow and how this sorrow affects the poet. There is nothing else to know about this…… [Read More]. Reformation and Renaissance Thinkers' Criticism. Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these.

He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church.

Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations Hermansen. Occidentalism the Title of Ian. These conservatives are, in the authors' estimation, anti-Western, even though they perceive themselves to be upholding Western values.

But is this really a useful or complete understanding of the complexities of the religious and cultural debates that exist within the Middle East, America, or the larger world? Although the use of the term Occidentalism helpful to some extent in examining why 'they' hate 'us' in the Islamic vs. Western world's culture wars, ultimately the term is so broad its value is somewhat limited, especially if their construct is applied to Nazi Germany vs.

Further confusing the issue is that the authors note that many Western critics come from within the system itself, from the ultimate critic of Western bourgeois values Karl Marx to Western-educated fundamentalist terrorists. This makes the definition of 'the Occident' even slipperier, especially as Marx was pro-urban, pro-science, in contrast to religious fundamentalists. This blurry…… [Read More]. Martin Luther vs John Locke. He argued that forgiveness could not be bought with money, and that it could only come as a result of the relationship between God and the sinner.

His writings were very controversial, and because he did not want to obey Pope Leo X and retract them, he was excommunicated and condemned as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. I believe that Martin Luther had a more profound impact on world history because the Protestant Reformation opposed the corruption that had taken over the Catholic Church.

Luther taught that salvation comes from God, and that only through faith can a sinner be redeemed, and also narrowed down the number of sacraments. Moreover, he translated the Bible to German which made it more accessible to the common people who did not speak Latin which in turn contributed to the development of a standard version of the…… [Read More].

Middle English The period thought of as the Middle English period roughly from is a period that is demonstrative of the massive changes associated with the Norman conquest. Though there is some evidence that French did not completely overtake English in common or official use the language had a great influence upon English via the Normans and the elasticity of the language at its source.

The Middle English period was marked by momentous changes in the English language, changes more extensive and fundamental than those that have taken place at any time before or since. Some of them were the result of the Norman Conquest and the conditions which followed in the wake of that event. Others were a continuation of tendencies that had begun to manifest themselves in Old…… [Read More]. William Carey Biography at One. He continually encouraged missionaries to travel to the hinterland "and build an indigenous Christianity with vernacular Bibles and other writings and native-led churches.

During his day-to-day life, Carey was also a husband and father. The following relates details regarding his three marriages. Dorothy Plackett Carey ? Married illiam Carey in She was 25 and he was Their marriage was a contrast in ability and interests.

She was reluctant to leave England and go to India. Only after much perusasion and on the condition that her sister, Kitty,…… [Read More]. So as anyone knows, higher prices always keeps addicts from continuing to use a product. So not only did the monster hybrid successfully sail the seas of a possible disastrous press package, but it also made more money on the kids that were addicted to the product in the first place.

So in answer to the question as to whether or not H. B fuller conducted itself in a morally responsible manner, that would be an unequivocal no. But let us have a reality check.. Twenty-twenty hindsight is always great, but everyone has to realize that companies are in business to make money and that process, although it may have some casualties, is the process that makes the world turn, so to speak.

B Fuller have done things differently and achieved the same results for the company, perhaps not. Any changes they would have made, whether it be additives to…… [Read More]. Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind.

More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.

The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…… [Read More]. Revolutions Compare and Contrast the. He believed that if people join together and make a social contract they can both preserve their nation and remain free Rousseau The French Revolution was a ten-year period of upheaval in France as it was throughout Europe during the period which followed the American Revolution.

In France, the political climate changed from a monarchy with aristocrats and much influence by the Catholic Church to a democracy. Citizens formulated their desires for rights and privileges equal to the aristocracy and, fighting for this ideal, won it. Nonexistent Knight by Italo Calvino Nonexistent Knight is a character driven narrative and, therefore, should be summarized within the framework of those characters and their exploits throughout the novella.

The titular character, the nonexistent knight, Agilulf, who exists not in the flesh but in a suit of armor, seeks to restore his honor by confirming that his good deed that earned him his knighthood, saving the virginity of a young royal woman from the lecherous ways of two brutes, did indeed happen per his recollection. The youth, Raimbaut, is a young knight in the making who falls in love with a dastardly lady knight. The lady knight, Bradamante, falls in love with the chivalric and impeccably noble ways of the nonexistent knight and sets up a love triangle of sorts.

Then there's Torrismund, another knight, who ends up falling in love with a woman that was at one point thought to be his mother. Microeconomic Study the Market for. However the restaurants collectively are considered to be a luxury good to those within the market.

We feel that our brand is a normal good in this market as our cuisine is specific to the taste of the clientele represented by the demographic. Additionally, our decor and quality distinguish our establishment from what are deemed to be the lower quality establishments in the area that would normally represent the 'competition'.

The additional features of our establishment also yield a luxury restaurant as the market deems the bathroom as an important feature in distinguishing a market friendly and luxurious restaurant experience. In many countries it is that way, the food itself does not distinguish the restaurant, as one can ostensibly obtain a great, world-class meal from many restaurants.

Indeed, the restroom experience is what qualifies a restaurant as being luxurious or not luxurious. The market structure that best characterizes the industry…… [Read More]. Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.

Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed as a principle. America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.

The new Imperialism of America and…… [Read More]. Pain and pleasure are not part of awls' theory. From this premise awls felt that true pluralism was possible and a tolerance for true democracy throughout the world community was possible. With so many different views circulating what is to provide stability in a society based upon the views of awls?

What keeps anarchy from developing at any moment? According to awls, stability is provided through what he describes as an overlapping consensus Love, Laws are developed that support the basis comprehensive doctrine but for differing reasons.

Each citizen supports the same laws but for different reasons. Consensus is not necessarily a compromise but a balancing of interests. Each citizen is free to hold his or her own belief and the overlap between…… [Read More]. Home Topics People Voltaire Essays. Work Cited Shelley, Mary. Candide and Other Stories. Works Cited Mish, Frederick, ed. Voltaire's Candide View Full Essay.

The Australian Poetry Series. Homer, and Denison Bingham Hull. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von. Twayne's Masterwork Studies; No. Bibliography Blake, William, and Alfred Kazin. Selected and Arranged with an Introduction by Alfred Kazin. An Introduction to Blake. University of Chicago Press, Bibliographical Data Text of Candide, by Voltaire, came at http: Retrieved 28 July online from Literature. Works Cited Yahoo Education. Voltaire, Francois Marie Arouet de. Retrieved on 24 Jan. Retrieved on March 19, , from Council for Secular Humanism: The Life of Voltaire.

Retrieved on March 19, , from the Great Debate: John Locke's Theory of Knowledge. Reflections on Some Recent Research. Works Cited Feder, Helena. Postmodernism, Ecofeminism, and Voltaire's Candide. Information Retrieved 12 April Candide and other stories. References Andrews Richard Mowery. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Edited by Philip D. Crime and the Law. In History of Penal Strategies. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes.

A collection of critical essays. Translated by Richard Wilbur. Works Cited Brians, Paul. Last Revised May 18, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Duke University Press, Enlightenment and Adultery in 18th Century Denmark. Speaking Out Against Injustice: The Case Of Jean Calas. Republics and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, Works Cited Cavaille, J.

Polemic uses of the terms in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English and Scottish literature. Adaptations of Les Liaisons Dangereuses. The Myth That Binds Us. Language and Self-Definition in Revolutionary America. Dada, Surrealism, and the Cinematic Effect. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. A history of Dadaism. Original work published Jones, A. Art History, 25 2 , Website visited October 9, Works Cited Catherine II. Major Problems in the History of Imperial Russia. The Avant-garde in Exhibition.

Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. Reference List Dubbler, N. References Cited; Craddock, P. John Hopkins University Press. The American Scholar Insight on the News. Reference List Associated Press. Original work published Milton and Shakespeare View Full Essay. John Milton's Paradise Lost. John Milton's Paradise Lost: Readings on Twelfth Night. Modernist Trends View Full Essay. Modernism -- Dada -- Postmodernism. Adamowicz, Elza, Robertson, Eric, Dada Discourses, Volume 1.

Last retrieved on April 9, 5. Spain, Europe and the Wider World: Famous Men of Greece C. Works Cited Buckle, Richard. The Creature from Jekyll Island. Thames and Hudson, Why did it provoke a riot?

Works Cited Ames, Edward Scribner. A note on Kant and the Paradoxes of Internationalism. Produced for a Variety of View Full Essay. Cornell University Press, Princeton University Press, Dahl, Shapiro and Cheibub. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: Where do fads come from? Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. European Judaism 35, Moses Mendelssohn and the Enlightenment. State University of New York Press, Wayne State University Press, Brann, Ross and Adam Sutcliffe.

After completing school, Francois-Marie planned to pursue a career as a poet, but his father intervened, sending him to Holland to work for the French ambassador. After writing a poem lampooning the regent Phillipe d'Orleans, he was exiled from Paris, though he later pleaded successfully for his return. In , Francois-Marie again mocked the regent in verse, but instead of being exiled he was sent to the Bastille for a year.

While there, he wrote one of his greatest poems: The poem was not published until , and was then printed secretly. After his release from prison in April he began his long association with the theater. The production of his Oedipe in November of that year was a tremendous critical and financial success. In , he visited Lord Bolingbroke, an influential English writer, beginning a connection with English intellectuals that served him well throughout his lifetime.

As his reputation grew, he became a favorite with royalty, accepting substantial gifts from the kings of England and France, but even this did not protect him from attack. When a love triangle formed between Voltaire, the actress Adrienne Lecouvreur, and the chevalier de Rohan-Chabot, the chevalier had Voltaire beaten by lackeys while Voltaire was a guest of the duke de Sully.

When the duke did nothing to help him, he challenged the chevalier to a duel, but when the chevalier moved to have Voltaire arrested, Voltaire arranged for exile in England instead. During this period Voltaire also tried writing in English, publishing the Essay on Civil Wars and the Essay on Epic Poetry and releasing a revision of his poem on Henry IV as The Henriade, a tremendous popular success which he dedicated to the English queen.

He returned to France secretly, remaining in hiding until he could obtain permission to stay in Paris. He also returned to the theater, with successful performances of Brutus and Zayre In his Letters Concerning the English Nation , the fruits of his time in Enland became apparent; his essays on English writers including Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, Locke, and Shakespeare—and on religious differences—celebrated the openness of the English monarchy and English society.

In France, the book was burned and the publisher jailed. Voltaire soon opted to leave Paris again, moving in with his friend and lover Mme. Together they studied and wrote for nearly fifteen years: Their relationship as lovers waned as Voltaire began a new affair, a scandalous relationship with his young niece, Mme.

While there, he labored to see Le siecle du Louis XIV into print, but quickly found himself at odds with king and court. After a brief period of detention, Frederick allowed him to leave, and Voltaire moved on to Switzerland with his niece, where he carried on extensive correspondence with such figures as Russia's Catherine the Great in addition to writing his Poems sur le desastre de Lisbonne et sur la loi naturelle Poems on the disaster in Lisbon and on Natural Law ; , his contributions to Denis Diderot's Encyclopedia, his own Philosophical Dictionary , and additional contes.

Voltaire took on several legal battles involving religious prejudice, and often secured reversals of imposed sentences. He began writing more strongly against institutional religions and superstitious beliefs and produced his Traite sur la tolerance Treatise on Tolerance. After a thirty-year absence he returned to Paris in April , having been invited to a gala performance of his play Irene.

Marie Antoinette asked to meet him, and at the gala he also mingled with friends Diderot and d'Alembert and met Benjamin Franklin, who brought his grandson to be blessed by Voltaire. Crowds came to meet his carriage, he was crowned with a laurel wreath, and a bust of Voltaire was placed onstage, crowned, and kissed by the entire cast of his play.

Perhaps overwhelmed by his emotional triumph, Voltaire fell ill and died in less than two months. He agreed to sign a statement saying he accepted Catholicism, likely to avoid the ignominious burial of the unsaved.

When he refused, in his dying days, to recognize the divinity of Jesus, the church would not accept his statement and attempted to deny his body a Christian burial. His nephew secretly moved Voltaire's body to a monastery in Champagne for burial by setting the body upright in a carriage.

In , his remains were exhumed and buried in the Pantheon at Paris. Voltaire was a master of language, able to write well in several genres, and he produced a massive body of writings. Throughout his life he wrote for the theater, authoring a total of fifty-six plays, the majority of which were tragedies.

As was traditional, he used classical sources for his plots, as with his first tragedy, Oedipe. His exposure to Shakespeare and the English stage inspired him to draw from French history as well as classical sources, as he did in Zayra and the earlier Adelaide Du Guesclin Voltaire used his talent for verse offstage as well: His Epistle to Urania , Poem on Natural Law , and Poem on the Lisbon Earthquake are among the poems that showcased Voltaire's humanism and his opposition to intolerance.

He also wrote several satirical poems, mocking the follies of political figures and lampooning the national heroine, Joan of Arc. La Pucelle was a highly unflattering but humorous portrait of the Maid of Orleans, reaching a low point in the young martyr's seduction by a donkey.

In the modern era, however, Voltaire's extensive corpus of plays and poetry is largely secondary to his status as a brilliant and progressive thinker. He is better known for the tenets of his humanist philosophy than for a particular text, although Candide, Letters Concerning the English Nation, and the Philosophical Dictionary have been the most widely read. While striving to be objective, especially in his histories, Voltaire spoke out strongly against the excesses of both church and state, and fanaticism in any form.

In several of his works, he struggled with the mystery of human suffering, a theme that suffuses several of his works and is epitomized in Candide. Though Voltaire was widely attacked in his own age as one of the most visible—and most voluble—opponents of absolutist religious and political institutions, he was also acknowledged to be a literary and philosophical genius whose skill with a pen could not be matched.

His reputation since then has changed little, though his philosophy has generally been more important to readers than his mastery of language. As critics have observed, however, his choice of genre and style was often an important part of the ideas he wished to convey. In particular, several critics have discussed the freedom that the contes allowed Voltaire. Haydn Mason and Robin Howells have suggested that what may seem like chaos in the contes may represent another level of Voltaire's attack on established forms of order.

Similarly, Roger Pearson, in his study of the contes, argues that this comparatively modern form of the contes mirrors the modernity of Voltaire's thinking. Multiple studies of Voltaire's correspondence appeared in the s, further emphasizing Voltaire's ability to adapt literary forms to his purpose.

Studies by Deirdre Dawson and Thomas M. Carr consider Voltaire's letters as literature which illustrate his talent for infusing new life into familiar forms. A study by Karen O'Brien suggestes that this was one of the merits of Voltaire's histories as well, which addressed historiography as an important form of literature.

Brumfitt both discuss Voltaire's aims for revitalizing the genre of history writing; Brumfitt focuses on Voltaire's depiction of royal mistresses, in which the author was compelled to navigate carefully between the need to be complimentary, his desire to write artistically, and his antiestablishment beliefs. Voltaire was nonetheless very concerned about maintaining traditional genres of writing as well. Recent scholarship has considered his work on epic poetry, occasional verse, and dramatic tragedy as evidence of his interest in both classical influence and modern innovation.


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[In the essay below, Williams presents his history of Voltaire's Essai sur la poésie épique, from the first English essay through the unauthorized translations and Voltaire's corrections. Williams suggests that Voltaire's revisions attempted to make the essay more appealing to French readership, but also had the effect of blunting his arguments.

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Essay on Voltaire's Candide - Voltaire's Opposition to Optimism - Voltaire’s Opposition to Optimism in Candide Philosophy is a means by which humans search for a .

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Voltaire's Candide Essay Words | 6 Pages. Candide On November 21, , Francois-Marie Arouet, otherwise known as Voltaire, was born in Paris. The youngest of five, son to Francois and Marie Arouet, Voltaire grew up in a household that had come to . This collection of essays by Voltaire contains a long essay on the Jean Calas case, several shorter essays on religious topics, and his famous poem on the Lisbon earthquake. Copyright information: The text is in the public domain.

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Essay Voltaire Words | 3 Pages Voltaire The building blocks of the Enlightenment were formed out of a desire for truth, reason, and freedom – virtually contingent upon the last. Essay on Voltaire's Candide - Voltaire's Opposition to Optimism Voltaire’s Opposition to Optimism in Candide Philosophy is a means by which humans search for a .