Anything that makes a woman feel inferior and takes away her self-respect is abuse. It would help the innumerable women in the country who get abandoned by their husbands and have no means of proving their marital status.
It would also help check child marriages, bigamy and polygamy, enable women to seek maintenance and custody of their children and widows can claim inheritance rights.
The Act is applicable on all women irrespective of caste, creed or religion. It would truly empower Indian women to exercise their rights. To what extent legislative measures have been able to raise the status of women in India?
We all know that girls are now doing better at school than boys. The annual results of Secondary and Higher Secondary Board examinations reveal this fact. More women are getting degrees than men, and are filling most new jobs in every field.
Since the last quarter of the 20th century and more so after the opening up of die economy, post, a growing number of women have been entering into the economic field, seeking paid work remunerative jobs outside the family. Women are playing bigger and bigger role in economic field: In fact, almost everywhere, including India, more women are employed, though their share is still very low.
Manufacturing work, traditionally a male preserve, has declined, while jobs in services have expanded, reducing the demand for manual labour and putting the sexes on equal footing. We can now see women in almost every field: They have also entered service occupations such as a nurse, a beautician, a sales worker, a waitress, etc.
Many are still excluded from paid work and many do not make best use of their skills. The rapid pace of economic development has increased the demand for educated female labour force almost in all fields.
Women are earning as much as their husbands do, their employment nonetheless adds substantially to family and gives family an economic advantage over the family with only one breadwinner. We fight to empower the makers, the doers and the dreamers to create their own destinies and achieve uncommon things.
The ESHIP Summit is a convening of leaders from across the United States and beyond seeking to support entrepreneurs, build ecosystems and change our economy. The Mayors Conference on Entrepreneurship brings together mayors and entrepreneurs to discuss ways to promote startup activity in their cities. GEW is an annual weeklong series of celebrations involving millions of people in more than countries, designed to inspire entrepreneurship and innovation.
The Kauffman Fellows Program provides firsthand experience in the venture capital process for exceptional men and women.
The Kauffman Foundation awards grants to nonprofit organizations that have exceptional track records in supporting diverse entrepreneurs. Startup Week Across America is an opportunity for senators and representatives to learn more about the important role startups play in our economy.
Initially, economists made the first attempt to study the entrepreneurship concept in depth. In the s, entrepreneurship has been extended from its origins in for-profit businesses to include social entrepreneurship , in which business goals are sought alongside social, environmental or humanitarian goals and even the concept of the political entrepreneur.
Entrepreneurs are leaders willing to take risk and exercise initiative, taking advantage of market opportunities by planning, organizing and deploying resources,  often by innovating to create new or improving existing products or services. According to Paul Reynolds, founder of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor , "by the time they reach their retirement years, half of all working men in the United States probably have a period of self-employment of one or more years; one in four may have engaged in self-employment for six or more years.
Participating in a new business creation is a common activity among U. Entrepreneurial activities differ substantially depending on the type of organization and creativity involved. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo, part-time projects to large-scale undertakings that involve a team and which may create many jobs.
Many "high value" entrepreneurial ventures seek venture capital or angel funding seed money in order to raise capital for building and expanding the business. Beginning in , an annual " Global Entrepreneurship Week " event aimed at "exposing people to the benefits of entrepreneurship" and getting them to "participate in entrepreneurial-related activities" was launched.
The term "entrepreneur" is often conflated with the term " small business " or used interchangeably with this term. While most entrepreneurial ventures start out as a small business, not all small businesses are entrepreneurial in the strict sense of the term. Many small businesses are sole proprietor operations consisting solely of the owner—or they have a small number of employees—and many of these small businesses offer an existing product, process or service and they do not aim at growth.
In contrast, entrepreneurial ventures offer an innovative product, process or service and the entrepreneur typically aims to scale up the company by adding employees, seeking international sales and so on, a process which is financed by venture capital and angel investments.
In this way, the term "entrepreneur" may be more closely associated with the term " startup ". Successful entrepreneurs have the ability to lead a business in a positive direction by proper planning, to adapt to changing environments and understand their own strengths and weakness.
The term "ethnic entrepreneurship" refers to self-employed business owners who belong to racial or ethnic minority groups in the United States and Europe. A long tradition of academic research explores the experiences and strategies of ethnic entrepreneurs as they strive to integrate economically into mainstream U.
Classic cases include Jewish merchants and tradespeople in large U. The American-born British economist Edith Penrose has highlighted the collective nature of entrepreneurship. She mentions that in modern organizations, human resources need to be combined in order to better capture and create business opportunities. According to Christopher Rea and Nicolai Volland, cultural entrepreneurship is "practices of individual and collective agency characterized by mobility between cultural professions and modes of cultural production", which refers to creative industry activities and sectors.
In their book The Business of Culture , Rea and Volland identify three types of cultural entrepreneur: A feminist entrepreneur is an individual who applies feminist values and approaches through entrepreneurship, with the goal of improving the quality of life and well-being of girls and women.
Feminist entrepreneurs are motivated to enter commercial markets by desire to create wealth and social change, based on the ethics of cooperation, equality and mutual respect. Social entrepreneurship is the use of the by start up companies and other entrepreneurs to develop, fund and implement solutions to social, cultural, or environmental issues. Social entrepreneurship typically attempts to further broad social, cultural, and environmental goals often associated with the voluntary sector  in areas such as poverty alleviation, health care and community development.
At times, profit-making social enterprises may be established to support the social or cultural goals of the organization but not as an end in itself.
For example, an organization that aims to provide housing and employment to the homeless may operate a restaurant , both to raise money and to provide employment for the homeless people. A nascent entrepreneur is someone in the process of establishing a business venture. In this observation, the nascent entrepreneur can be seen as pursuing an opportunity , i.
Its prescience and value cannot be confirmed ex ante but only gradually, in the context of the actions that the nascent entrepreneur undertakes towards establishing the venture,  Ultimately, these actions can lead to a path that the nascent entrepreneur deems no longer attractive or feasible, or result in the emergence of a viable business.
In this sense, over time, the nascent venture can move towards being discontinued or towards emerging successfully as an operating entity. The distinction between the novice, serial and portfolio entrepreneurs is an example of behavior-based categorization .
Other examples are the related studies by  ,  on start-up event sequences. Nascent entrepreneurship that emphasizes the series of activities involved in new venture emergence  ,  ,  rather than the solitary act of exploiting an opportunity. With this research, scholars will be able to begin constructing a theory of the micro-foundations of entrepreneurial action. Scholars interested in nascent entrepreneurship tend to focus less on the single act of opportunity exploitation and more on the series of actions in new venture emergence  ,  , .
Indeed, nascent entrepreneurs undertake numerous entrepreneurial activities, including actions that make their businesses more concrete to themselves and others. For instance, nascent entrepreneurs often look for and purchase facilities and equipment; seek and obtain financial backing, form legal entities , organize teams; and dedicate all their time and energy to their business .
Project entrepreneurs are individuals who are engaged in the repeated assembly or creation of temporary organizations.
Industries where project-based enterprises are widespread include: A project entrepreneur who used a certain approach and team for one project may have to modify the business model or team for a subsequent project.
Project entrepreneurs are exposed repeatedly to problems and tasks typical of the entrepreneurial process. Resolving the first challenge requires project-entrepreneurs to access an extensive range of information needed to seize new investment opportunities. Resolving the second challenge requires assembling a collaborative team that has to fit well with the particular challenges of the project and has to function almost immediately to reduce the risk that performance might be adversely affected.
Another type of project entrepreneurship involves entrepreneurs working with business students to get analytical work done on their ideas. The term "millennial entrepreneur" refers to a business owner who is affiliated with the generation that was brought up using digital technology and mass media—the products of Baby Boomers , those people born during the s and early s.
Also known as Generation Y , these business owners are well equipped with knowledge of new technology and new business models and have a strong grasp of its business applications. There have been many breakthrough businesses that have come from millennial entrepreneurs such as Mark Zuckerberg , who created Facebook.
The comparison between millennials who are self-employed and those who are not self-employed shows that the latter is higher. The reason for this is because they have grown up in a different generation and attitude than their elders.
Some of the barriers to entry for entrepreneurs are the economy, debt from schooling and the challenges of regulatory compliance. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as an innovator—a designer of new ideas and business processes.
Theorists Frank Knight  and Peter Drucker defined entrepreneurship in terms of risk-taking. The entrepreneur is willing to put his or her career and financial security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea, spending time as well as capital on an uncertain venture. However, entrepreneurs often do not believe that they have taken an enormous amount of risks because they do not perceive the level of uncertainty to be as high as other people do. Knight classified three types of uncertainty:.
Entrepreneurship is often associated with true uncertainty, particularly when it involves the creation of a novel good or service, for a market that did not previously exist, rather than when a venture creates an incremental improvement to an existing product or service. The ability of entrepreneurs to work closely with and take advice from early investors and other partners i. Indeed, measures of coachability are not actually predictive of entrepreneurial success e. This research also shows that older and larger founding teams, presumably those with more subject expertise, are less coachable than younger and smaller founding teams.
According to Shane and Venkataraman, entrepreneurship comprises both "enterprising individuals" and "entrepreneurial opportunities", so researchers should study the nature of the individuals who identify opportunities when others do not, the opportunities themselves and the nexus between individuals and opportunities. For example, higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level, suggesting that most entrepreneurial behavior is based on necessity rather than opportunity.
The ability of entrepreneurs to innovate relates to innate traits, including extroversion and a proclivity for risk-taking. Entrepreneurs tend to have the ability to see unmet market needs and underserved markets. While some entrepreneurs assume they can sense and figure out what others are thinking, the mass media plays a crucial role in shaping views and demand.
Differences in entrepreneurial organizations often partially reflect their founders' heterogenous identities. Fauchart and Gruber have classified entrepreneurs into three main types: Darwinians , communitarians and missionaries. These types of entrepreneurs diverge in fundamental ways in their self-views, social motivations and patterns of new firm creation.
Entrepreneurs need to practice effective communication both within their firm and with external partners and investors in order to launch and growth a venture and enable it to survive. An entrepreneur needs a communication system that links the staff of her firm and connects the firm to outside firms and clients.
Entrepreneurs should be charismatic leaders , so they can communicate a vision effectively to their team and help to create a strong team. Communicating a vision to followers may be well the most important act of the transformational leader. According to Baum et al. Entrepreneurial leaders must speak and listen to articulate their vision to others.
Communication is pivotal in the role of entrepreneurship because it enables leaders to convince potential investors, partners and employees about the feasibility of a venture. The Communication Accommodation Theory posits that throughout communication people will attempt to accommodate or adjust their method of speaking to others.
Rank argues that entrepreneurs need to be able to intensify the advantages of their new product or service and downplay the disadvantages in order to persuade others to support their venture. Research from found links between entrepreneurship and historical sea piracy. In this context, the claim is made for a non-moral approach to looking at the history of piracy as a source of inspiration for entrepreneurship education  as well as for research in entrepreneurship  and business model generation.
Stanford University economist Edward Lazear found in a study that variety in education and work experience was the most important trait that distinguished entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs  A study by Uschi Backes-Gellner of the University of Zurich and Petra Moog of the University of Siegen in Germany found that a diverse social network was also important in distinguishing students that would go on to become entrepreneurs. Studies show that the psychological propensities for male and female entrepreneurs are more similar than different.
Empirical studies suggest that female entrepreneurs possess strong negotiating skills and consensus-forming abilities. Entrepreneurs may also be driven to entrepreneurship by past experiences. If they have faced multiple work stoppages or have been unemployed in the past, the probability of them becoming an entrepreneur increases  Per Cattell's personality framework, both personality traits and attitudes are thoroughly investigated by psychologists.
However, in case of entrepreneurship research these notions are employed by academics too, but vaguely. According to Cattell, personality is a system that is related to the environment and further adds that the system seeks explanation to the complex transactions conducted by both—traits and attitudes.
This is because both of them bring about change and growth in a person. Personality is that which informs what an individual will do when faced with a given situation. Innovative entrepreneurs may be more likely to experience what psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi calls " flow ".
Csikszentmihalyi suggested that breakthrough innovations tend to occur at the hands of individuals in that state. Research on high-risk settings such as oil platforms, investment banking, medical surgery, aircraft piloting and nuclear power plants has related distrust to failure avoidance.
This research was extended to entrepreneurial firms by Gudmundsson and Lechner. They found that the firms of distrusting entrepreneurs were more likely to survive than the firms of optimistic or overconfident entrepreneurs.
The reasons were that distrusting entrepreneurs would emphasize failure avoidance through sensible task selection and more analysis. Kets de Vries has pointed out that distrusting entrepreneurs are more alert about their external environment.
Similarly, Gudmundsson and Lechner found that distrust leads to higher precaution and therefore increases chances of entrepreneurial firm survival. Researchers Schoon and Duckworth completed a study in that could potentially help identify who may become an entrepreneur at an early age.
They determined that the best measures to identify a young entrepreneur are family and social status, parental role modeling, entrepreneurial competencies at age 10, academic attainment at age 10, generalized self-efficacy, social skills, entrepreneurial intention and experience of unemployment. Some scholars have constructed an operational definition of a more specific subcategory called "Strategic Entrepreneurship".
Closely tied with principles of strategic management, this form of entrepreneurship is "concerned about growth, creating value for customers and subsequently creating wealth for owners". The model's three steps entail the collection of different resources, the process of orchestrating them in the necessary manner and the subsequent creation of competitive advantage, value for customers, wealth and other benefits. Leadership in entrepreneurship can be defined as "process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task"  in "one who undertakes innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods".
Entrepreneurship in itself can be defined as "the process by which individuals, teams, or organizations identify and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities without being immediately constrained by the resources they currently control". At the core, an entrepreneur is a decision maker. Such decisions often affect an organization as a whole, which is representative of their leadership amongst the organization. With the growing global market and increasing technology use throughout all industries, the core of entrepreneurship and the decision-making has become an ongoing process rather than isolated incidents.
This becomes knowledge management which is "identifying and harnessing intellectual assets" for organizations to "build on past experiences and create new mechanisms for exchanging and creating knowledge". It is a common mantra for one to learn from their past mistakes, so leaders should take advantage of their failures for their benefit.
This is how one may take their experiences as a leader for the use in the core of entrepreneurship-decision making.
The majority of scholarly research done on these topics have been from North America. For example, in North America a leader is often thought to be charismatic, but German culture frowns on such charisma due to the charisma of Nazi leader Adolph Hitler. Other cultures, like some European countries, view the term "leader" negatively, like the French. For countries like that, an authoritarian approach to management and leadership is more customary.
Despite cultural differences, the successes and failures of entrepreneurs can be traced to how leaders adapt to local conditions.
Michelacci and Schivardi  are a pair of researchers who believe that identifying and comparing the relationships between an entrepreneur's earnings and education level would determine the rate and level of success.
Their study focused on two education levels, college degree and post-graduate degree. While Michelacci and Schivardi do not specifically determine characteristics or traits for successful entrepreneurs, they do believe that there is a direct relationship between education and success, noting that having a college knowledge does contribute to advancement in the workforce. Michelacci and Schivardi state there has been a rise in the number of self-employed people with a baccalaureate degree.
This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (December ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Female entrepreneurs are said to encompass approximately 1/3 of all entrepreneurs .
Essay on Women Empowerment in India! The subject of empowerment of women has becoming a burning issue all over the world including India since last few decades. Many agencies of United Nations in their reports have emphasized that gender issue is to be given utmost priority. It is held that women.
October (This essay is derived from a talk at the Startup School. How do you get good ideas for startups?That's probably the number one question people ask me. Essay on Women Empowerment In India. This is the article by Prof. V.P. Gupta, Director, Rau’s IAS Study Circle, New Delhi. Women Empowerment itself elaborates that Social Rights, Political Rights, Economic stability, judicial strength and all other rights should be also equal to cliffdockery6ovpcj6.ga should be no discrimination between men and .
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small cliffdockery6ovpcj6.ga people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs. [need quotation to verify]Entrepreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture . Berry College is an independent, coeducational college with fully accredited arts, sciences and professional programs plus specialized graduate programs in education and business administration. The college is recognized nationally for the quality and value of its educational experience.